for people ages 18-50 (full criteria)
Healthy Volunteers
healthy people welcome
at Davis, California
study started
Principal Investigator
by Kimber L Stanhope, Ph.D.



The objectives of this proposal are to address the gaps in knowledge regarding the metabolic effects of consuming orange juice, the most frequently consumed fruit juice in this country, compared to sugar-sweetened beverage.

Official Title

The Effects of Orange Juice Compared With Sugar-sweetened Beverage on Risk Factors and Metabolic Processes Associated With the Development of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes


Specific Aims: There is considerable epidemiological evidence that demonstrates associations between added sugar/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk for or prevalence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, and gout. Especially concerning is recent evidence from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III that demonstrates that there is increased risk of CVD mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles (Yang, 2014). Even the US mean added sugar intake, 15% of daily calories, was associated with an 18% increase in risk of CVD mortality over 15 years. The results from the investigator's recently completed study (1R01 HL09133) corroborate these findings (Stanhope, 2015). They demonstrate that supplementing the ad libitum diets of young adults with beverages containing 0, 10, 17.5 or 25% of daily energy requirement (Ereq) as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) affects lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for CVD in a dose response manner. Specifically, levels of nonHDL-cholesterol(C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and postprandial triglycerides (TG) increased linearly over a 2-week period with increasing doses of HFCS. Furthermore, even the participants consuming the 10% Ereq dose exhibited increased levels of these risk factors compared to baseline.

These and similar results have helped to lead to reductions in soda consumption in this country, and new dietary guidelines and FDA food labeling requirements to promote reductions in added sugar consumption. However, there are gaps in knowledge about other sugar-containing foods that lead to public confusion concerning healthier options for soda, and impede further progress in implementing public health policies that will promote further reductions in soda consumption. One such food is naturally-sweetened fruit juice. The amount of sugar in fruit juice is comparable to the amount in soda. Because of this, a consumer seeking answers on the internet will find many articles in which experts state or suggest that the effects of consuming fruit juice are as detrimental as or even worse than those of soda. However, in contrast to soda, fruit juice contains micronutrients and bioactives that may promote health. Therefore the consumer can also find numerous articles on the internet where the health benefits of fruit juice and these bioactives are extolled. There are a limited number of clinical dietary intervention studies that have directly compared the metabolic effects of consuming fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverage, and their results are not conclusive. Thus we will pursue the following Specific Aims:

  1. Specific Aim 1: To compare the weight-independent effects of consuming 25%Ereq as orange juice or sugar-sweetened beverages for 4 weeks on risk factors for CVD and other chronic disease in normal weight and overweight men and women.
  2. Specific Aim 2: To mechanistically compare the weight-independent effects of consuming 25%Ereq as orange juice or sugar-sweetened beverages on metabolic processes associated with the development of CVD and T2D in normal weight and overweight men and women.
  3. Specific Aim 3: To relate the changes assessed under Specific Aims 1 and 2 to the changes in the urinary levels of metabolites and catabolites of the main flavanones in orange juice, hesperetin and naringenin.


Cardiovascular Risk Factor, Type2 Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Sensitivity, Metabolic Syndrome, orange juice, sugar-sweetened beverage, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, uric acid, de novo lipogenesis, hepatic triglyceride, hepatic glucose production, whole body insulin sensitivity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Resistance, Hypersensitivity, Naturally-sweetened orange juice


You can join if…

Open to people ages 18-50

men and pre-menopausal women Body mass index: 20-35 kg/m2 Body weight > than 50 kg Self-reported stable body weight during the prior six months

You CAN'T join if...

Fasting glucose >125 mg/dl Evidence of liver disorder (AST or ALT >200% upper limit of normal range) Evidence of kidney disorder (>2.0 mg/dl creatinine) Evidence of thyroid disorder (out of normal range) Systolic blood pressure consistently over 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure over 90 mmHg Triglycerides > 400 mg/dl LDL-C > 160 mg/dl in combination with Chol:HDL > 4 Hemoglobin < 10 g/dL Pregnant or lactating women Current, prior (within 12 months), or anticipated use of any hypolipidemic or anti-diabetic agents.

Use of thyroid, anti-hypertensive, anti-depressant, weight loss medications or any other medication which, in the opinion of the investigator, may confound study results Use of tobacco Strenuous exerciser (>3.5 hours/week at a level more vigorous than walking) Surgery for weight loss Diet exclusions: Food allergies, special dietary restrictions, routine consumption of less than 3 meals/day, routine ingestion of more than 2 sugar-sweetened beverages or 1 alcoholic beverage/day, unwillingness to consume any food on study menu Veins that are assessed by the R.N.s as being unsuitable for long-term infusions and multiple blood draws from a catheter.

Pre-existing claustrophobia or metal implants that preclude magnetic resonance imaging Any other condition that, in the opinion of the investigators, would put the subject at risk



  • University of California, Davis
    Davis California 95616 United States

Lead Scientist at UC Davis

  • Kimber L Stanhope, Ph.D.
    Researcher, School of Veterinary Medicine. Authored (or co-authored) 147 research publications


accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
University of California, Davis
Learn more or sign up for the study here! Sign up for this study
Study Type
About 56 people participating
Last Updated