A multi-center, randomized, 72-month, parallel- group, non-inferiority, phase III study to compare the effectiveness of roflumilast (Daliresp, 500 mcg quaque die (QD) or alternate regimen) therapy versus azithromycin (250 mg QD, 500 mg QD three times per week, or alternate regimen) to prevent hospitalization or death in a patients at high risk for COPD exacerbations.
RELIANCE is a U.S.-based pragmatic clinical trial funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) to compare long-term use of roflumilast vs. azithromycin in up to 1,200 patients. It is intended to support hospital efforts to reduce the risk of all-cause hospitalization and reduce pre-mature deaths in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have been hospitalized in the prior year for a COPD exacerbation. The COPD Patient Powered Research Network (PPRN) and affiliated investigators will conduct the trial in sites in the U.S.
Both roflumilast and azithromycin have been shown to reduce the risk of COPD exacerbations compared to placebo. However, there has not been a head-to-head comparison of the two medications. So, the relative harms and benefits of the two medications are unknown. Eligible patients will be randomized (1:1) to receive either a prescription for roflumilast or a prescription for azithromycin, and will be followed for at least 6 and up to 72 months. The primary endpoint is the combined outcome of all-cause hospitalization or death; the secondary endpoints include premature treatment discontinuation, patient-reported adverse effects, and physical, social, and emotional health. Patients will be enrolled at participating clinical sites and follow up data will be collected via an online patient portal or via a call center. Baseline and outcome data will also be collected from site medical records and administrative/claims databases.
Pragmatic, non-inferiority trial using an intention-to-treat analysis to evaluate whether daily azithromycin is non-inferior to daily roflumilast in patients at high risk of COPD exacerbations. The investigators will randomize individual patients to receive prescriptions for roflumilast or azithromycin (1:1 ratio), stratified by site and current smoking status (yes/no).