The purpose of this research is to investigate whether consuming two different kinds of olive oil will change risk factors related to cardiovascular disease, including levels of good and bad cholesterol, levels of inflammation, and levels of gene expression.
Olive Oil Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Health Biomarkers
The purpose of this research is to investigate whether consuming two different kinds of olive oil will change risk factors related to cardiovascular disease, including levels of good and bad cholesterol, levels of inflammation, and levels of gene expression. Healthy individuals aged 20-45 with a BMI over 20 kg/m2 are eligible to participate. The study involves 5 visits (1 initial screening and 4 study visits) and will last about 8 weeks. There is a 2-week run-in period before starting the study, followed by two diet intervention periods each lasting two weeks, separated by a two-week washout period. Participation in this study will involve an initial two-week run in period to become accustomed to the study diet. After this two week period, participants will be randomly selected to start either a high-polyphenol olive oil (extra virgin olive oil) or a low-polyphenol olive oil (refined olive oil); participants will consume the other oil during the second dietary intervention period lasting 2 weeks. During each phase of the study, participants will be asked to come to the University of California, Davis campus after a 10-12 hour overnight fast. At each visit, body measurements will be taken, a serving of olive oil and bread will be eaten, and three urine and blood samples will be collected over the course of 4 hours. Each study visit will involve three blood draws by a trained nurse or phlebotomist. During the 8 weeks of the study, all olive products such as olives, olive oil, and olive containing products will need to be avoided. The study will provide olive oil to be eaten at home for each intervention phase. Additionally, the investigators will ask that nuts and high-polyphenol foods (mostly fruits and vegetables) be avoided in the diet. Detailed food diaries will be filled out and brought to study visits.
Generally healthy male and female subjects within the range of 20-45 years of age and BMI range of 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 for the healthy weight/overweight group and ≥ 30 kg/m2 for the obese group will be recruited.
You CAN'T join if...
Adults unable to consent, individuals who are not yet adults (infants, children, teenagers), pregnant or lactating women, women planning to become pregnant in the next two months and prisoners will be specifically excluded
Documented chronic diseases including diabetes, thyroid disease, kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, active cancer, previous cardiovascular events, history of gastric bypass or other GI issues related to fat absorption
History of dyslipidemia or abnormal blood glucose levels (total cholesterol >240 mg/dL, elevated fasting blood glucose levels >125 mg/dL)
Allergy to olives, inability to tolerate gluten or multiple allergies/intolerances that would significantly limit food intake
Smoker or living with a smoker, illicit drug use, consuming >1 alcoholic drink/day, vaporizer and/or electronic cigarette use
Extreme dietary or exercise patterns
Recent weight fluctuations (>10% in the last 6 months)
Taking prescription lipid medications or supplements that may affect lipoprotein metabolism, >1 g of fish oil/day, antioxidant supplements, cannabidiol (CBD) oil